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Challenging Impunity
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
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Handbook for Journalists

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda announced the first-ever judgement on the crime of genocide by an international court. This is a landmark decision in the history of international criminal law. It brings to life, for the first time, the ideals of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of genocide, adopted 50 years ago.

This judgement is a testament to our collective determination to confront the heinous crime of genocide in a way we never have before. It is a defining example of the ability of United Nations to establish an effective international legal order and the rule of law.

Let us never again be accused of standing by while genocide and crimes against humanity are being committed.

I am sure that I speak for the entire international community when I express the hope that this judgement will contribute to the long-term process of national reconciliation in Rwanda. For there can be no healing without peace; there can be no peace without justice; and there can be no justice without respect for human rights and the rule of law.

Kofi Annan,
Secretary General of the United Nations
2 September, 1998

I. The Tribunal at a Glance
II. The Public Information Unit
III. The Spokesman of the Tribunal
IV. Facilities for the Media
V. Guidelines
VI. Internet site of the Tribunal
VII. Addresses

I. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), was created by Security Council Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994. The Tribunal has jurisdiction to prosecute the persons responsible for Genocide and other serious violations of International Humanitarian Law committed in the territory of Rwanda, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994, as well as Rwandan citizens suspected of such acts or violations in the territory of neighbouring states.

During that period, and in particular between the months of April and July 1994, some 800,000 Rwandans were killed, during a campaign of extermination directed against Tutsis and moderate Hutus.

By resolution 977 of 22 February 1995, the Security Council decided that the seat of the Tribunal would be located in Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. The Tribunal consists of three Trial Chambers with three judges each and an Appeals Chamber of seven judges. The Appeals Chamber which adjudicates appeals from both the Rwanda Tribunal and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, is based at The Hague, Netherlands.

The Judges adjudicate trials and motions. The Prosecutor investigates the crimes for which the Tribunal has jurisdiction, prepares indictments and, once these have been confirmed by a Judge, prosecutes the accused persons. The Registrar of the Tribunal is the representative of the Secretarial General and is responsible for the administration of the Tribunal, for providing the necessary support to the Chambers and the Prosecution and for legal and institutional relations between the Tribunal and the Host Country and other Member States of the United Nations. The Registrar is the Tribunal’s channel of communication. The Tribunal’s headquarters are in the Arusha International Conference Center (AICC).

Mr. Hassan Bubacar Jallow (The Gambia)

Deputy Prosecutor:
Mr. Bongani Majola (South Africa)

Mr. Adama Dieng (Senegal)

Deputy Registrar:
Mr. Pascal Besnier (France)

For further information on the organisation and work of the Tribunal, please consult the general brochure and specialised fact sheets published by the Public Information Unit. These are also available on our web site at: www.ictr.org

The Achievements of the ICTR
Since its establishment in Arusha (Headquarters) and Kigali in 1995, the ICTR has:

- Secured the arrest of over 70 individuals accused of involvement in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Among those arrested were the former Prime Minister and several other members of the interim Government of Rwanda during the genocide as well as senior military leaders and high ranking government officials;
- Completed trials of several of those arrested, including that of the former Prime Minister, Jean Kambanda. This was the first time that a Head of Government had been convicted for genocide;
- Laid down legal principals in international criminal justice, which will serve as precedents for other International Criminal Tribunals and for courts all over the world;
- Established a complex international institution based in Arusha and Kigali. The institution includes four modern, fully equipped Courtrooms and the first ever Detention Facility to be set up and run by a United Nations body;
- Obtained the co-operation of the international community in the arrest of suspects, the travel of witnesses to Arusha, the detention of convicted persons and, in general, support for its aims and activities.
- Pioneered advocacy for victim oriented restitutive justice in International Criminal law - a concept which has been included in the statute of the International Criminal Court.

II. The Public Information Unit

The work of the Unit
The Public Affairs & Information Unit is one of the Units of the External Relations and Strategic Planning Section. Its function is to disseminate information to the Press and the general public concerning the role and the work of the ICTR. This function may be broken down into three principal tasks.

a. Providing support to the Press
Support to the Press is provided by the members of the Public Information Unit. They are available to journalists for any information or assistance. On entering the ICTR premises, journalists are met by the Security Service which can issue Press Passes valid for one day to journalists who are not yet accredited to the Tribunal.

Permanent accreditation of journalists and other members of the Press is the responsibility of the Public Information Unit. Any journalist may be accredited to the Tribunal simply by:

- Completing a form which may be obtained from the Public Information Unit;
- Providing a copy of a valid press card or a letter of introduction from the Editor of the Organization for which he/she works and a copy of his/her passport;
- Accreditation is free.

b. Organization of visits for journalists and members of the public
In collaboration with the Protocol Unit, each year, the Tribunal receives large numbers of groups of visitors interested in the work of the ICTR. Such groups come from widely different backgrounds. They include academics; students, diplomats, military groups and tourists. For each visit, the Public Information Unit provides documentation and organizes a visit to the Tribunal premises. If possible, they will arrange attendance at a hearing before one of the Trial Chambers. Around three thousand people attend the hearings of the various Trial Chambers each year. Given the limited capacity of the Tribunal to receive visitors, it is advised that the organisers of groups should reserve such a visit at least several weeks ahead of the desired date.

c. Preparation of press releases and other public information documents
The Public Information Unit distributes all public documents, issued by the Tribunal such as its Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Judgements, Motions and Decisions. The question whether or not a given document is public, is decided by the Chambers.
Of particular interest to journalists are the regular press releases, press briefings and the list of detainees which shows the current status of each case pending before the Tribunal. These documents are distributed automatically by fax or by e-mail to all those on our mailing list, including all accredited journalists. They are also available on our Website: www.ictr.org

The Team
The staff of the Public Information Unit is able to provide journalists with any information needed to carry out their work. They may be contacted at any time.
The offices of the Public Information Unit are located on the Mezzanine floor near the entrance to the Tribunal’s premises in Arusha and are easily accessible.
The Unit also has a branch at Kigali (Rwanda), and two members of the Staff of the Unit are based there.

The members of the Unit are:
Arusha: Telephone: +255 27 2505000 / 2565062 or +1 212 963 2850, ictr-press@un.org
Names Language Title Contact:
E-mail Telephone Extension/ Mobile
Danford Mpumilwa English/Swahili Information Officer mpumilwad@un.org
+255 27 256 5091/ +255 754 282798
Rani Dogra English Editorial Assistant dogra@un.org
+255 27 256 5568
Speciosa Kitindi English/Kiswahili Administrative Clerk kitindi@un.org
+255 27 256 5017
Kigali: Telephone: +1 212 963 9906 or + 250 8 4265-70
Innocent Kamanzi Kinyarwanda/English/French Information Officer kamanzi@un.org
Ext. 6222
Charles Kamuru Kinyarwanda/English Information Assistant kamuru@un.org
Ext. 6104
Ruci Nailati English Administrative Assistant nailati@un.org
Ext. 6106
Jeanne-Dative Karenzi Kinyarwanda/English/French Assistant karenzi@un.org
Ext. 6224

III. The Spokesman of the ICTR

The Tribunal has a Spokesman, who is attached to the Immediate Office of the Registrar. His task, inter alia, is to explain and comment on all aspects of the work of the Tribunal including decisions of the Trial Chambers, the operations of the Tribunal, institutional and policy questions, as well as administration and management issues. He is the authorised official to speak to the media on behalf of the Tribunal through interviews, weekly briefings, or in response to press inquiries.

The Spokesman is also responsible for providing oral or written briefings on the Tribunal to representatives of Governments professional groups, NGOs, academic groups and the public.

Name Roland Kouassi Géro Amoussouga
Languages English/French
Title Senior Legal Adviser, Spokesperson of the Tribunal
Mobile: +255 27 256 5335
+255 784 400 874
e-mail: amoussouga@un.org

IV. Facilities available for the Media

1. In the course of its work of sensitising and informing the Public, the Public Affairs & Information Unit publishes a Press Release each time there is an event which so requires. It also issues an update (ICTR Update) of cases which have reached a decisive point in the procedure before the Tribunal, as well as briefing notes as required. The Public Information Unit organises Press conferences as required, in particular when distinguished personalities visit the Tribunal. The Unit also arranges interviews with the Spokesman and other officials of the ICTR and organises regular briefings for journalists.

2. The Tribunal has a fully equipped Press Center on the ground floor near to the entrance to its premises. It provides work stations for up to 20 journalists with individual lighting and international satellite telephone lines. They can also have access to Internet and may use photocopy and fax machines which are available in the Press Unit, on the Mezzanine floor. Use of telephones for international communications is subject to:

a. Obtaining a confidential pin number. In exchange for a deposit of $500, any journalist may have a pin code. After her/his stay at the Tribunal, the cost of international calls is deducted from the deposit and the remainder is returned to the journalist or,

b. Using the telephone with prepaid phonecards containing a limited number of units or minutes. The phonecards are available from the Communications Section.

3. The public gallery of each courtroom can accommodate approximately 100 people. Proceedings before a Trial Chamber are public with exception of deliberations or when the Chamber decides to sit in camera for special reasons. In such circumstances, the Tribunal may, in the interest of justice, order the Press and the public to be excluded from all or part of hearing.

4. Three of the courtrooms of the Tribunal are equipped with video cameras and a control unit for the recording and distribution of the pictures. Journalists may follow the work of the Chambers through television monitors installed in the Press Center. Journalists who wish to record sound only should bring a cable with an XLR or a CINCH connector. To record the video images a BNC connector is required. Technical help (but not recording equipment) is available if needed.

V. Guidelines for Journalists

- Journalists with a valid accreditation have free access to the Public galleries of the courtrooms, the Press Center, the Library and the Offices of the staff of the Public Information Unit. Apart from these rooms, access to any other offices is strictly prohibited to journalists unless they have the express permission of the official concerned and are accompanied by a member of the Press Department.

- Journalists wearing their accreditation badge may go directly to the Public gallery of the courtrooms and may be assisted by the Security Officers on duty on the way through the building.

- Filming or taking photographs in the courtrooms must be authorised by the Press Service which will previously have obtained permission from the President of the Chamber. Any cameraman or photographer allowed into a courtroom, must wear a badge and have a written authorisation to be present. Such cameramen and photographers must also behave in a manner appropriate to the Tribunal and avoid disrupting the trial proceedings.

- It is prohibited to film or to take photographs from the public gallery. Recording is prohibited during the testimony of a protected witness. It is strictly prohibited to bring mobile phones into the public gallery. As a matter of courtesy, it is prohibited to read newspapers, to drink, or to eat during the hearings.

VI. Internet site of the Tribunal

The Tribunal’s website is accessible at: www.ictr.org

It contains a wide variety of information of interest to journalists including all of the Tribunal’s judgements, Fact Sheets on different aspects of the organisation of the Tribunal and its work, the biographies and photographs of the judges, the Prosecutor and the Registrar and a map of Rwanda. Press releases, an up-to-date chart giving the status of each of the ICTR detainees, are also available, as are the full texts of all of the basic legal instruments governing the Tribunal. Paper copies of all of these documents are available from the Public Affairs & Information Unit.

With regard to the work of the Tribunal, it is envisaged that all public judicial documents will, in due course, be available on the website. Access to the Public Judicial records Database is directly from the home page. This part of the site is still in the course of development but much useful material is already available there.

As the website expands, further information and documents will be included.

VII. Addresses

a. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Arusha, Tanzania
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
Arusha International Conference Center
P.O. Box 6016, Arusha, Tanzania
Tel: +255 27 2505000/2565062
or +1 212 963 2850
Fax: +255 27 2504000/2504373
or +1 212 963 2848/49
E-mail: ictr-press@un.org
Internet: http://www.ictr.org

Rwanda, Kigali
Amahoro Hotel
P.O. Box 749, Kigali, Rwanda
Tel: +250-84266 or +1 212 963 9906
Fax: +1 212 963 4001

The Hague, The Netherlands
Churchillplein 1
2517 JW, The Hague
The Netherlands
Tel.: +31 (0)70 512 5027
Fax: +31 (0)70 512 8280 or 8932

b. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

Press Office
Churchillplein 1, 2517 JW
The Hague, Netherlands
P.O. Box 13888, 2501 EW
Tel.: +31 70 416-53 43/56
Fax: +31 70 416-53 55/86 68

Head of Public Information
Christian Chartier
E-mail: chartier.icty@un.org
Portable: +31 065-1338-438

Spokesman (Registry and Chambers)
E-mail: RefikHodzic@registry.icty
Telephone: +31 70 512 5066 / +31 653 57 80 06

Spokesperson for the Prosecutor
E-mail: nikiforov@un.org
Tel: +31 (0)70 512 5475 / +31 620 499 213

c. United Nations Secretariat General

Spokesman for the Secretary-General
Stephane Dujarric
UN Headquarters
P.O. Box 4782
Grand Central Station
New York, NY 10017
Tel: 212-963-5128

d. Other useful addresses

Journalists who would like to contact colleagues of the local press may contact the secretariat of the Arusha Press Club.

Arusha Press Club
P.O. Box 212
Tel: +255 27 2506438
E-mail: arushatimes@habari.co.tz

Arusha Times
P.O. Box 212
Tel: +255 27 2506438
E-mail: arushatimes@habari.co.tz


Prosecutor of the Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Born in the Gambia in 1950 Hassan B. Jallow, studied law at the University of Dar es Salaam Tanzania (1973), the Nigerian Law School (1976) and the University College, London (1978). He worked as State Attorney in the Attorney Generals’ Chambers in the Gambia from 1976 until 1982 when he was appointed Solicitor General.

Justice Hassan Bubacar Jallow served as Gambia’s Attorney-General and Minister of Justice from 1984 to 1994 and subsequently as a Judge of the Gambia’s Supreme Court from 1998 - 2002. In 1998, he was appointed by the United Nations Secretary General to serve as an international legal expert and carry out a judicial evaluation of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia. He also has served as a legal expert for the Organisation of African Unity and worked on the drafting and conclusion of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights which was adopted in 1981. He has also served the Commonwealth in various respects including chairing the Governmental Working Group of Experts in Human Rights. Until his appointment as Prosecutor to the ICTR, Justice Jallow was a Judge of the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra Leone on the appointment of the UN Secretary-General in 2002 as well as a member of the Commonwealth Secretariat Arbitral Tribunal.
Justice Jallow was awarded the honour of Commander of the National Order of the Republic of Gambia.


Deputy Prosecutor

Bongani Majola is the Deputy Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Before joining the ICTR, Bongani Majola was the Executive Director of the Legal Resources Center, a non-profit public interest law firm which represents the poor and uses litigation to strengthen constitutional rights through the decisions of the Constitutional Court of South Africa. Among others, he was involved in the Treatment Action Campaign trial which sought to give meaning to the constitutional provisions dealing with the right of access by poor people to medical care. Bongani Majola was also professor and dean of the faculty of law at the University of the North in the Limpopo province in South Africa. During part of that time, he was also a member of the committee of experts advising members of the Constitutional Assembly which drew the current South African Constitution. Before going into the academic world, Mr. Majola had practiced law as a presiding judicial officer (magistrate} in the lower courts and had also spent years prosecuting in those courts. He also has experience as a court interpreter. For many years he sat with Judges, as an assessor, in many criminal trials in the High Courts of South Africa trying a variety of offences, including murder, robbery, rape and other serious offences. Academically, Bongani Majola holds an LLM degree from Harvard University in the United States of America, in addition to the Bachelor of Laws and B. Iuris degrees from the University of Zululand in South Africa. He was a visiting professor at the School of Advance International Studies at Johns Hopkins University in 1990 and a research fellow at Yale University in 1993.



Adama Dieng was appointed on 1 March 2001 by the Secretary General after consultation with the President of the ICTR. The Registrar's deputy is Mr. Pascal Besnier (France).

He was born on 22 May 1950. He began his career as Registrar of the Regional and Labour Courts in Senegal in 1973, and then served as Registrar of the Supreme Court of Senegal for six years. In 1982, he joined the International Commission of Jurists where he served successively as Legal Officer for Africa, Executive Secretary and, from October 1990 to May 2000 as Secretary-General. While holding that post, Mr. Dieng was appointed the United Nations Independent Expert for Haiti (1995).

On 26 January 2001, he was appointed Registrar of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. He took up his duties on 1 March 2001.